The next generation of humans may well be genetically modified. The National Academy of Sciences on Tuesday issued a 216-page report endorsing human germline modification in the future, but only in certain cases that would otherwise result in children being born with serious genetic diseases.
Germline engineering refers to modifying a person or embryo's genetic code in such a way that the changes are passed onto their offspring. This differs from the more-accepted "somatic cell" method, better known as gene therapy, wherein the changes only affect the person being treated.
"Heritable germline genome editing trials must be approached with caution, but caution does not mean that they must be prohibited," the report read. A 22-member panel made up of prominent scientists and researchers spent a year compiling it. And while the panel is in favor of pursuing the technology, they warned that it must be done with "stringent oversight" and only as a corrective measure "preventing a serious disease or condition" -- not as a means of enhancing people with, say, super-strength, better looks or heightened intelligence.
The panel also stated that, in addition to preventing genetic diseases, gene editing to make people less susceptible to diseases like HIV, cancer or Alzheimer's would be acceptable. "We do not view prevention as a form of enhancement," the panel's co-chair, R. Alta Charo of the University of Wisconsin, told MIT Technology Review. "But whether it's permissible is up to regulators."
This recommendation stands in stark contrast to current legal regulations in both Europe and the US. Here in America, germline engineering has been outlawed since 2015 when Congress added a rider to the Health and Human Services appropriations bill which banned the FDA from considering any proposal employing such modifications. China, on the other hand, has no such qualms with the technology and has already begun experimenting with it.