Haptic feedback has been a feature in iPhones for the past few years, but you wouldn't know it while you were typing -- even third-party keyboards either use it in limited situations (like SwiftKey) or ask you to pay up. Google is willing to step up to the plate with a full and free solution, though. The latest version (1.40) of Gboard for iOS has introduced an option for haptic feedback with key presses, giving you reassuring thumps as your fingers hit the glass. You can't fine-tune the vibration strength like you can with Android, but that tactile experience will be there.
You'll need an iPhone 7 or newer to get the sensation, according to 9to5Google. This isn't the sort of addition that will have you considering an iPhone when you hadn't before. However, it might make life easier if you're used to haptic feedback on Android (not to mention the Google ecosystem) and miss it while you're using an Apple handset.