For the former, the highlights include a relocation of shrines around the playfield (theoretically allowing small guilds to hold one), an increase in the Favor of Bori buff time, and a tweak that now gives sacrifice rewards to the group or raid making the sacrifice (allowing players to form extra-guild groups and still receive credit). Additionally, a new Pyre mechanic has been added, whereby player kills will now reward the victor with a body bag full of dismembered parts which can then be burned atop the appropriate pyre for for PvP XP as well as Glory and Prowess renown.
For the ranger revamp, start wrapping your head around the following tweaks: fundamental changes to class combos, removal of stances in favor of a new mechanic called Advantages, extensive changes to traps, and the unification of bow and crossbow weapon types.
Finally, Funcom has added a fair number of high-level quests to the Paikang and Kara Korum zones. You can check out a comprehensive list of patch changes on the official boards.