The premiere features of this patch are the new Accolade and Squad Support systems. Accolades are your basic MMO achievements with a Star Trek veneer, although if you collect enough of them, you can earn real benefits for your character (such as passive resistances) in addition to titles. All we can say is that if there isn't an accolade for the number of "Picard Maneuvers" you've done, then Cryptic needs to get on that and make it so.
Squad Support is a new version of Cryptic's famous Sidekick system from City of Heroes. It paves the way for friends of varying levels to group together for missions and fleet actions by temporarily raising or lowering the rank of the group to match the squad leader's.
Season One: Update Two contains several other additions, so head over to STO's site and check them out!