OS X 10.9.2 just arrived via the Mac App Store, bringing with it a number of "improvements to the stability, compatibility and security of your Mac."
While the update seems to focus on issues that were occurring with FaceTime audio calls, iMessages, Mail, and server/VPN connections,
there's no word on whether or not it has also fixed the SSL vulnerability that was recently patched in iOS 7.0.6 and 6.1.6. Update: developer Steve Streza confirms that Safari now behaves correctly/securely in 10.9.2, indicating that the security hole has been plugged as expected.
The "detailed information about the security content of this update" has not been posted as of publication time; however, "detailed information about this update" -- which lists all of the changes made with the exception of the security details -- is updated.
Update: If you're dubious that the error has been fixed on a specific machine or browser, head over to http://gotofail.com to find out if your installation is safe from the Apple SSL bug.
Thanks to Andrew, Eric and everyone who sent this in.