It pops that info up in a card that looks quite similar to the information Inbox intelligently surfaces from your emails. The thinking goes that email users search their messages for specific info like this pretty frequently, so anything Google can do to surface that data quicker is a win. Along with the most pertinent bit of data that you're searching for, Inbox will also feature a quick link directly to the email you're looking for if you need to see it in its full context.
Below those quick results, Inbox will show a section of "top results," with and the full chronological search results will be displayed below that. The Inbox team is confident that between the new "quick answers" and top search results, you won't need to dig into the full search details very often, though there's no word on exactly how it decides what emails to show in your top results.
If you've seen these features already, it's because Google has done a bit of testing with them already -- the company says that it made some notable improvements in its search ranking algorithms as they apply to email in the past few months. Now that they've completed the testing, these features are rolling out to all users, both in the Inbox app for Android and iOS as well as on the web.